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Extra info for Parallel Systems: Redundancy in Government

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However, beginning in the 1760s, and developing at a much enhanced rate in the early nineteenth century, ancient INGOs such as those previously listed in Table 2 were superseded by a greatly more varied array of new INGOs. The scope of these new INGOs is demonstrated in Table 3, and is indicative of several significant divergences from their predecessors with respect to their issuearea focus: (i) diversification; (ii) specialization; and (iii) secularization, although religion remained important for many.

128 â•… A humanitarian organization of far greater significance was to be established the following year: the International Red Cross. 132 By the following year, the first Geneva Convention was signed and the first national societies formed in Belgium, Spain, France and Italy, as well as in many parts of what later became Germany. The close relationship between the Red Cross movement and governments may be one of the principal reasons for its unusual success in spreading globally: by the end of the decade societies existed not only in western and central Europe, but also Russia and the Ottoman Empire.

In the area of health, this period saw the formation of the Royal Jennerian Society for the Extermination of the Small-Pox, instituted in 1803. 49 The report of that year revealed both the extent and the limits of its cosmopolitanism in its claim that ‘the life preserving cause of vaccination is now extended to every land. 55 â•… The year 1815 is also notable for the formation of the first peace societies. 60 â•… The period following the Congress of Vienna, given the reestablishment of conservative regimes across Europe, was one in which novel INGO formation was constrained.

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