By John S. Koliopoulos
Plundered Loyalties examines the impression of the Axis career (1941-44) and the Greek Civil warfare (1946-49) on Greek West Macedonia's multi-lingual and deeply fragmented population.
The political scenario in that mountainous quarter was once greatly complex, outlined via occupying forces, their 'collaborators,' and resistance firms. Guerrilla task and the attendant harsh reprisals introduced untold anguish to the peasants as a result of starting to be ferocity of the occupiers. The struggle opposed to the occupying forces and the necessity to construct and preserve as bold a guerrilla military as attainable obliged the resistance forces to press their devices' unwilling recruits or even salary struggle opposed to resistance forces ideologically against them.
The state of affairs grew to become much more torturous within the years of civil strife after the struggle, while yesterday's heroes grew to become insurgent opposed to the valid executive of the country.
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Extra info for Plundered Loyalties
Where a sample of representative statistical data, as well as Christopher J. Christides, T h e M a c e d o n ian C a m o u fla g e in the L ig h t o f F a c ts a n d F ig u re s, Athens 1949, 32 ff. A. Pallis, S ta t is t ik i m eleti p e ri ton p h y lc tik o n m eta n a steu se o n M a k e d o n ia s k a i T h r a k is k a ta tin p e rio d o n 1 9 1 2 - 1 9 2 4 (Statis tical study of the racial migrations in Macedonia and Thrace in the period 1912-1924), Athens 1924, 9. E m igration a n d exchange o f p opulations 27 infinitely stronger m otive than attachm ent to abstract causes like nationalism.
T h u s the traditional relationship betw een highlands and lowlands was broken and with it the old system o f stock-breeding. Arable land was steadily ex panding at the expense o f grassland. Already, state hostility towards a w ay o f life and econ om ic activity that w ere difficult or im possible to incorporate into the predom inant system o f political, social and econ om ic relations had been underm ining transhumant stockbreeding. R isin g rents for pastureland m ade the m aintenance o f large flocks increasingly difficult.
T o b acco cultivation increased especially after the C rim ean W ar w hen Turkish cigarettes w ere introduced to W est European countries. H ow ever, it becam e an im portant local product after the arrival o f the A natolian and Pontian Greeks in the early 1920s. Soil, skill and the dryness o f the sum m er determ ined its quality and price. T h e m ulberry tree was grow n in w ell-w atered parts mainly for the leaves w hich are the host o f the silk-w orm . Silk cocoons w ere exported, in the absence o f any local silk industry.