By Clyde Coombs, Happy Holden
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The World's number one consultant to revealed Circuit Boards_Now thoroughly up to date with the most recent info on Lead-Free production! the easiest reference within the box for over 30 years, the published Circuits guide equips you with definitive insurance of each aspect of published circuit assemblies_from layout how you can fabrication methods.
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Additional info for Printed Circuits Handbook (McGraw Hill Handbooks)
Due to relentless progress in IC technology, the gate density on a chip is increasing by about 75 percent per year, resulting in the growth of IC chip I/O terminals by 40 percent per year, which places ever increasing demands on the methods of their packaging and interconnection. As a result, the physical size of electronic gears keeps shrinking by 10 to 20 percent per year, while the surface area of substrates is being reduced by about 7 percent per year. This is accomplished by continuously increasing wiring densities and reducing linewidths, which has severely stressed PWB manufacturing methods, reduced processing yields, and increased the costs of the boards.
6 Lead Replacement Cost In the United States and other countries, some legislative initiatives aimed at restricting the use of Pb have failed. This failure spurred research for solder replacement alloys. Several corporations and universities devised Pb-free solders, some of which were patented. As is the case with any patented item or process, the rights to invention reside with the inventor or sponsoring corporation in the short term, and several of these alloys may not be used freely. In some cases, only slight modifications in alloy composition separate commonly available solder alloys from patented solder compositions.
Reflow ovens may need to be constructed out of different materials to handle long-term effects of the higher temperatures. Fan bushings and polymeric seals to maintain inert atmosphere integrity may not withstand much above the temperature regimes required for Sn-Pb processing. These same considerations apply to wave soldering. Hand soldering irons will require higher temperatures, and more boards will likely have to be scrapped due to localized charring while trying to attain reflow during the hand soldering operation or at repair.