By Maurizio Gabbrielli, Simone Martini
This glorious addition to the UTiCS sequence of undergraduate textbooks offers a close and recent description of the most rules at the back of the layout and implementation of recent programming languages.
Rather than concentrating on a selected language, the e-book identifies crucial ideas shared by means of huge periods of languages. to accomplish this basic method, certain descriptions of the most programming paradigms, particularly central, object-oriented, sensible and common sense are given, analysed extensive and in comparison. this gives the root for a serious realizing of many of the programming languages.
An historic standpoint can also be integrated, discussing the evolution of programming languages, and to supply a context for many of the constructs in use this day. The booklet concludes with chapters which introduce uncomplicated notions of syntax, semantics and computability, to supply a totally rounded photo of what constitutes a programming language.
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Extra info for Programming Languages: Principles and Paradigms (Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science)
4 It should be noted that, for simplicity, we assume that the data upon which programs operate are the same for source and object languages. If were not the case, the data would also have to be translated in an appropriate manner. 16 1 Abstract Machines Comparing the Two Techniques Having presented the purely interpreted and purely compiled implementation techniques, we will now discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches. As far as the purely interpreted implementation is concerned, the main disadvantage is its low efficiency.
We start with the initial symbol, E, and rewrite it using a production (which we are allowed to select). Let us, for example, use production (3), and we obtain the rewriting E ⇒ E ∗ E. Now we concentrate on the right-hand side of this production. We have two E’s that can be rewritten (expanded) independently of each other. Let us take the one on the left and apply production (1) to obtain E ∗ E ⇒ I ∗ E. We can now choose whether we expand I or E (or the other way round). 1 shows the rewriting that we have just started, developed until the string ab ∗ (a + b) has been derived.
2). • Productions with the same head are grouped into a single block using vertical bar (“|”) to separate the productions. 2, the productions for E could therefore be expressed as follows: ⟨E⟩ ::= ⟨I ⟩ | ⟨E⟩ + ⟨E⟩ | ⟨E⟩ ∗ ⟨E⟩ | ⟨E⟩ − ⟨E⟩ | −⟨E⟩ | (⟨E⟩). Moreover, some notations mix symbols (for example, use of the vertical bar, the arrow and non-terminal symbols written in italic upper case). Derivations and languages A grammar inductively defines a set of strings. We can make explicit the operative aspect of this inductive definition using the concept of derivation.