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By Alexander S. Spirin

Dr. Spirin is a global authority on ribosomes and has released past books during this zone in English. this article is for complex undergraduates and starting graduate scholars and should disguise the constitution, functionality, and biosynthesis of ribosomes. Ribosomes are very important in protein synthesis, that's at the moment a sizzling subject in lots of various components of analysis.

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There are five different leucine tRNA species in E. coli, with anticodons CAG, GAG, U*AG (U* is modified uridine), CAA, and U*AA, recognizing six leucine codons; among them, recognizes the leucine codon CUG (anticodon CAG), and recognizes the leucine codons UUA and UUG (anticodon U*AA). The situation is similar in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Cellular organelles (mitochondria and chloroplasts) of eukaryotic cells contain their own sets of tRNA species which are simpler than those of the cytoplasm, and also, as a rule, they have their own ARSases.

In contrast to prokaryotes, in eukaryotic organisms mRNAs are as a rule monocistronic, that is, they code for just one polypeptide chain. The eukaryotic mRNA coding sequence is flanked both at the and at the by noncoding (untranslated) sequences , the being typically very long (comparable to the length of the coding sequence). It has already been mentioned that the vast majority of eukaryotic mRNAs have also poly(A) tracts of various lengths at the The is usually modified by the cap (Fig. 4), which appears to be essential for the association between the mRNA and the ribosome prior to initiation.

Biol. 26:75–90, Spirin, A. , Belitsina, N. , and Ajtkhozhin, M. A. (1964) Messenger RNA in early embryogenesis, J. Gen. Biol (Russian) 25:321–338. English translation (1965) Fed. Proc. 24:T907–T922. Spirin, A. , and Nemer, M. (1965) Messenger RNA in early sea-urchin embryos: Cytoplasmic particles, Science 150:214–217. , and Astrachan, L. (1956) Phosphorus incorporation in Escherichia coli ribonucleic acid after infection with bacteriophage T2, Virology 2:149–161. , and Osawa, S. (1995) tRNA sequences and variations in the genetic code.

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