Download Science incarnate: historical embodiments of natural by Christopher Lawrence, Steven Shapin (eds) PDF

By Christopher Lawrence, Steven Shapin (eds)

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6o P eter D ear reducible to them). ^^ But more directly, at the beginning of the century there was already, in the Dutch Republic, what was in some re­ spects a prototypical form of human automation: the organization of its army. The neo-Stoic writings of the Dutch scholar Justus Lipsius had attempted, at the end of the sixteenth century, to renew the virtues of the Roman Empire for the United Provinces, newly emergent from the control of Spain and still fighting for their existence both commercially and militarily.

64. Descartes, Oeuvres, 11:223; trans. Descartes, The Philosophical Writings, 1:314. 70 P et er D ear gland. ^^ As Vance G. ^^ Many of the passions, however, represent involuntary physical expressions of mental states (such as joy, desire, hate, and so forth). Mastering the passions therefore re­ quires self-discipline. ®® Gestures and facial behavior were classic expressions of the passions and ac­ cordingly receive much treatment in Descartes’s treatise. ” ^° Descartes goes on to discuss the subtle­ ties of expression discernible in the “movement and shape of the eye” as well as in facial behavior generally and notes the frequent difficulty found in making sharp distinctions between them.

But in objecting to the views of his erstwhile disciple, the Dutchman Regius, in 1641, Descartes insisted that there is only one kind of soul, the human rational soul. ^^ Furthermore, the synopsis in the Discourse presents Descartes’s position quite clearly. Perhaps the most telling passage con­ cerns the aforementioned question of the differences between automata and hu­ mans. He wants to stress not only that the living human body, like other animal bodies, is a kind of elaborate automaton of the sort that God would be capable of fabricating, but also that human beings are not just automata.

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