By Rod Ellis, Natsuko Shintani
Comprises a suite of papers addressing quite a few study concerns and their relevance to language pedagogy. the most matters addressed are interplay, formal guideline, variability and studying kinds. The booklet additionally comprises an creation which gives an summary of the improvement of moment language acquisition learn, and concludes via reading the position of analysis in language pedagogy.
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The aim of this quantity is to give contemporary study within the box of the purchase of practical literacy and its precursors. the amount goals to seize the cutting-edge during this speedily increasing box. An try out is made to elucidate the obscure and sometimes inconsistent definitions of useful literacy from the viewpoint of improvement.
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There is even a paucity of descriptive research informing us what use of the L1 teachers typically make. There are likely to be marked differences even in classrooms where the teacher knows the learners' L1. Kaneko (1990) found that in a classroom where both teacher and learners were Japanese nearly 40% of the total speaking time was conducted in the L1, whereas in a similar classroom where the teacher was an American who spoke fluent Japanese only 18% of the speaking time was in the learners' L1.
4) Learners have opportunity to nominate their own topics and to control the development of these topics. (5) Learners are given opportunities to participate actively in the classroom communication but are not required to produce until they are ready to do so. Advanced learners may need opportunities for extended production. (6) The use of the L2 is not restricted to pedagogic functions but is also used for organisational and social functions. It is probably true to say that most L2 classrooms do not manifest these characteristics and, therefore, might be said to constitute acquisition-poor environments.
The general assumption underlying these studies of questioning behaviour is that display questions are less likely to contribute to an acquisition-rich environment than are referential questions. There would appear to be a number of grounds for such an assumption. First, educational arguments can be advanced for encouraging a less transmission oriented approach to teaching (Barnes, 1976). Referential questions allow the learner more opportunity to take part in her own learning. Second, referential questions are more compatible with a focus on meaning exchange (as opposed to form), which has been hypothesised to be necessary for acquisition to take place (Krashen, 1981a).