By K.S. Birdi
Self-assembly monolayer (SAM) buildings of lipids and macromolecules were came across to play a huge position in lots of commercial and organic phenomena. This booklet describes approaches, specifically the STM and AFM, which are used to check SAMs at good surfaces. K.S. Birdi examines the SAMs at either liquid and stable surfaces by utilizing the Langmuir monolayer process. This publication is meant for researchers, teachers and pros.
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Extra resources for Self-Assembly Monolayer Structures of Lipids and Macromolecules at Interfaces
8. CALMING OF WAVES BY SPREAD MONOLAYERS Spread monolayers have been known since ancient times to damp out the small ripples that are constantly being formed by the action of wind, and lead to dangerous breaking of large waves, by their cumulative disturbance of the surface. The fractal nature of waves is also well known (Birdi, 1993). It was suggested nearly two centuries ago by Benjamin Franklin that the film “lubricates” the water surface (Franklin, 1776), so that the wind cannot grip it as well as it does a clean surface.
The is measured by recording the displacement of the fine silk thread, lightly covered with petroleum jelly, that separates the film-covered surface from the clean surface in the trough (Fig. 1). A somewhat different method was used in more recent studies (Jalal, 1978). In the original design of the Langmuir method, a “boom” of waxed mica floating on the surface was used to compress the film. However, in the recent versions the trough and the barrier have been made of Teflon. The leakage of the film around the barrier has become negligible because of the smooth Teflon surfaces.
001 mN/m). 3. MEASUREMENT OF MONOLAYER PROPERTIES Surface Pressure The change in surface tension of a liquid surface allows one to measure the surface Because this is the most fundamental physical quantity, extensive data on such systems have been reported. In the earlier instruments, was measured by a simple bell-crank balance in which weights were hung in a pan. Later, torsion wires were used. The surface pressure, tension can be measured by various methods, as described in detail in most surface chemistry textbooks (Adam, 1941; Gaines, 1966; Chattoraj and Birdi, 1984; Birdi, 1989; Adamson, 1990).