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An alternative process uses a hydrogen-based solution. The hydrogen reduces the growth rate, but the temperature is raised to 850 or even 1050 °C to compensate. Polysilicon may be grown directly with doping, if gases such as phosphine, arsine or diborane are added to the CVD chamber. Diborane increases the growth rate, but arsine and phosphine decrease it. Silicon dioxide Silicon dioxide (usually called simply "oxide" in the semiconductor industry) may be deposited by several different processes.
The deposition of ceramic oxides, nitride films, metallic multilayers and various superlattices has been demonstrated. In the 1990s the development of new laser technology, such as lasers with high repetition rate and short pulse durations, made PLD a very competitive tool for the growth of thin, well defined films with complex stoichiometry. Technical aspects There are many different arrangements to build a deposition chamber for PLD. The target material which is evaporated by the laser is normally found as a rotating disc attached to a support.
Copper deposition of the metal has been done mostly by electroplating, in order to reduce the cost. Aluminum can be deposited from tri-isobutyl aluminium (TIBAL), tri ethyl/methyl aluminum (TEA,TMA), or dimethylaluminum hydride (DMAH), but physical vapor deposition methods are usually preferred. However, CVD processes for molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, nickel, and tungsten are widely used . These metals can form useful silicides when deposited onto silicon. Mo, Ta and Ti are deposited by LPCVD, from their pentachlorides.