By Donald Neamen
Neamen's Semiconductor Physics and units, 3rd Edition. offers with homes and features of semiconductor fabrics and units. The objective of this booklet is to assemble quantum mechanics, the quantum conception of solids, semiconductor fabric physics, and semiconductor equipment physics in a transparent and comprehensible way.
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The brackets are used to designate direction as distinct from the parentheses used for the crystal planes. Note that in the simple cubic lattices, the [hkll direction is pcrpendicular to the (hkl)plane. This perpendicularity may not be true in noncubic lattices. 4 The Diamond Structure As already stated, silicon is the most common semiconductor material. Silicon is referred to as a group IV element and has a diamond crystal structure. Germanium is also a group 1V elanent and has the same diamond structure.
3 Space Lattices Determine the number of atoms per unit cell in a (ti) lace-centcred cubic, (b) body-centered cubic, and (c) diamond lattice. Determine the number o l Ga atoms and As atoms per cm3. 65 Assume that each atom is a hard sphere with the surface of each atom in contact with the surface of its nearest neighbor, Dctcrminr the percentage of total unit cell volume that is occupied in ( a ) a simplc cubic lattice, (b) a face-centered cubic lattice, (c) a body-centered cubic lattice, and (d) a diamond lattice.
Complex ternary compounds, such as AIGaAs, can be grown on substrates, such as GaAs, where ahrupt changes in the crystal composition are desired. Many layers of various types of epitaxial compositions can be grown on a substrate in this manner. These structures are extremely beneficial in optical devices such as laser diodes. 7 1 SUMMARY W W A few of the most common semiconductor cnaterials were listed. Silicon is the most common semiconductor material. The properties of semiconductors and other materials are determined to a large extent by the single-crystal lattice structure.