By Winfried Mönch
Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces offers with structural and digital homes of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces. the 1st half introduces the overall facets of space-charge layers, of clean-surface and adatom-induced surfaces states, and of interface states. it's through a presentation of experimental effects on fresh and adatom-covered surfaces that are defined by way of easy actual and chemical suggestions. the place to be had, result of extra subtle calculations are thought of. This 3rd version has been completely revised and up to date. particularly it now contains an in depth dialogue of the band lineup at semiconductor interfaces. The unifying suggestion is the continuum of interface-induced hole states.
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6. :> 4 ZnS o ~ / / +-' C '0 ZnSe o Q. Q) :::J AIP o / 3 CO > Si o I C CO 2 r- +-' /1:J GaSb Q. c / U C CI) / / C '0 CO ..... 0 / / Ge o GaAs Q) E AIAs o / / / / GaP / 0 ZnTe / Iß InP InAs 0 TI °CdTe AISb CO +-' / / 1 / 2 °lnSb I I I 4 6 8 Dielectric band gap [eV] Fig. 6. Position of the branch point above the valence band at the mean-value point versus the width of the dielectric band gap. 007. From Mönch[1996b] 44 3. Surface States For an estimate of the decay length l/qr,:;g of a surface state at mid-gap position, the widths W 1 and 2V1 of the valence band and the band gap, respectively, in the one-dimensional model are now replaced by the widths of the bulk valence bands and of the dielectric band gaps of three-dimensional semiconductors, respectively.
These considerations apply to both electrons and holes. Therefore, the effective mass carries no distinguishing subscripts. 30 2. , it is constant and the same for all subbands. 45) where LJ,N is the number of mobile carriers per unit area in an inversion layer. Most simply, the confining potential may be modeled by a triangular weIl. , at z = 0, the potential is assumed to be infinitely high and thereby to prevent the electrons from penetrating into the adjoining vacuum or insulator. Inside the semiconductor the electric field of the space-charge layer is assumed to be constant, and for z > 0 the potential spatially varies as V(z) = Es' z.
The semiconductors are assumed to be semi-infinite, which means that edge effects will not be considered and a simple, one-dimensional model has to be solved [Kings ton and Neustadter 1955, Garrett and Bmttain 1955, Manyet al. 1965, FmnkI1967]. 3) W. Mönch, Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001 22 2. Surface Space-Charge Region in Thermal Equilibrium Here, eb is the static dielectric constant of the semiconductor. , g(z) = eo[Nt - N;; - n(z) + p(z)]. 4) It is assumed that the shallow donors (d) and acceptors (a) are homogeneously distributed and no deep traps are present.