By Raymond Dingle
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Extra resources for Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 24: Applications of Multiquantum Wells, Selective Doping, and Superlattices
Bonds with hydrogen, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, and sometimes quinones, can be formed at the carbon surface. The presence of these groups signifies that the behaviour of these electrodes can be very pH-sensitive, but this has also been purposely used to modify the electrode surface. That is, these groups provide sites for covalent linking to biorecognition elements (or other materials) or for their integration onto polymer surface structures, key points for the development of biosensors. Thus, the advantages of carbon electrodes include low cost, wide potential window, relatively inert electrochemistry, richness in surface chemistry and electrocatalytic activity for a variety of redox reactions.
In other words, the nucleation and growth will happen only if the metal catalyst particle does not exceed a certain size. If the particle is too large and the graphite layer is not sufficiently tight and does not lift off, the particle simply is covered with carbon. Taking as an example methane as precursor gas, the catalytic effect of the metal breaks down the methane into carbon (graphitic and amorphous carbon competing) and hydrogen; this reaction is enhanced in high temperature conditions: CH4 ⇆ C (Cgraphite + Camorphous) + 2H2.
That makes the Schottky barrier for the holes at the source become thin enough to allow for a considerable amount for tunnelling. For intermediate gate voltages, the barrier is too thick for tunnelling and the conductance in the CNT device decreases. At high positive gate voltages, the bands bend down making the Schottky barrier for electrons at the drain contact thinner, giving rise to an electron tunnelling current. 24 Comparison schemes of a CNT-FET in the backgate configuration: source (S), drain (D) and the backgate electrode (G); b CNT-FET in liquid configuration: passivated source (S) and drain (D) electrodes, Pt wire (pseudo reference electrode), solution containing analyte (S) A very important point to highlight with respect to the CNT-FET devices is that the CNT conducting channel exhibits some advantages with respect to conventional silicon based FETs and which makes attractive for sensing purposes.