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By Jean Baudrillard

Aujourd'hui l'abstraction n'est plus celle de l. a. carte, du double, du miroir ou du thought. l. a. simulation n'est plus celle d'un territoire, d'un entre référentiel, d'une substance. Elle est l. a. génération par les modèles d'un réel sans origine ni réalité : hyperréel. Le territoire ne précède plus los angeles carte ni ne lui survit. C'est désormais los angeles carte qui précède le territoire - procession de simulacres - c'est elle qui engendre le territoire et s'il fallait reprendre l. a. delusion, c'est aujourd'hui le territoire dont les lambeaux pourrissent lentement sur l'étendue de l. a. carte. C'est le réel, et non los angeles carte, dont des vestiges subsistent çà et los angeles, dans les déserts qui ne sont plus ceux de l'Empire, mais le notre. Les désert du réel lui-même. --- from book's again hide

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The second point is that Locke does not think that (justificatory) empiricism is inconsistent with the laws of nature being necessary truths. Most accounts of empiricism hold that laws cannot be necesLocke’s style Earthly minds, like mud walls, resist the strongest batteries: and though, perhaps, sometimes the force of a clear argument may make some impression, yet they nevertheless stand firm, keep out the enemy truth, that would captivate, or disturb them. Tell a man, passionately in love, that he is jilted; bring a score of witnesses of the falsehood of his mistress, ’tis ten to one but three kind words of hers, shall invalidate all their testimonies.

If I think about my car in the driveway, the idea before my mind is less vivid than when I look out of the window and see it. Ideas of sense also cohere in a way memory images do not. If the object I sense is real, I can look again or go outside and perceive it from different angles. The remembered idea is more or less a single image and can be changed by an act of will, but “real thing” ideas cannot be. In both cases, according to Berkeley, I am aware of nothing but ideas, but I take one set to be the real thing and the other an idea of the imagination.

Locke thinks we can have knowledge of physical objects, but not of insensible particles (since we do not have “microscopical eyes”). Berkeley later argued that nothing can be known beyond our ideas. certain. His model for science here is Aristotelian (and Cartesian). This holds that a science is a deductive theory with self-evident axioms from which we can deduce laws that are certain. Geometry and arithmetic are sciences in this sense, but they are only about our ideas, whereas natural philosophy (physics and chemistry) is about real existence, but never gives more than probable conjectures.

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