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IEEE Trans Ind Appl 38(6):1622–1626 Butler KL, Ehsani M, Kamath P (1999) A Matlab-based modeling and simulation package for electric and hybrid electric vehicle design. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 48(6):1770–1778 CFR40-19 (2012a) Code of federal regulations title 40—protection of environment. pdf CFR40-20 (2012b) Code of federal regulations title 40—protection of environment. http://www. pdf Chan CC, Bouscayrol A, Chen K (2010) Electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell vehicles: architecture and modelling. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 59(2):589–598 Delprat S, Lauber J, Guerra TM, Rimaux J (2004) Control of a parallel hybrid powertrain: optimal control.
Tech rep ORNL/TM-2011/471, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. pdf 14 1 Introduction Franzese O, Knee HE, Slezak L (2010) Effect of wide-based single tires on fuel efficiency of class 8 combination trucks. Transp Res Rec 2191(1):1–7 Geering HP (2007) Optimal control with engineering applications. Springer, Berlin Hofman T (2007) Framework for combined control and design optimization of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. PhD thesis, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands IEA (2007) World Energy Outlook 2007.
If S = 0 than Pp = 0. When stop-start of the engine is possible then Pf,i = 0 if S = 0, see Fig. 3a. 1 presents typical relations for Pf . ˙ f (or fuel rate, for short) The fuel power Pf is related to the fuel mass flow rate m by the lower heating value, h Pf = hm ˙f. The characteristics of the hybrid drivetrain components require a non-smooth model in many hybrid vehicle applications, where charging and discharging is modeled with a non-smooth continuous function, see Fig. 3b. 3) with Ps_ch (0, Es ) = Ps_dis (0, Es ), in which Ps_ch is the storage power during charging of the battery and Ps_dis the storage power during discharging of the battery, 18 2 Cyber-physical Modeling of Hybrid Vehicles see Fig.