By Michael Adams, Laurel J. Brinton, R.D. Fulk
The relationships between info, proof, and technique in English ancient linguistics are perennially vexed. This volume—which levels chronologically from previous to Present-Day English and from manuscripts to corpora—challenges a wide selection of assumptions and practices and illustrates how varied equipment and methods build proof for old linguistic arguments from an more and more huge and numerous physique of linguistic facts.
Read or Download Studies in the History of the English Language VI PDF
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Extra resources for Studies in the History of the English Language VI
Org/inhoud/corpora/inl-corpus38-mln-woorden). pdf). php). Novels & translations (all novels and their Dutch translations are found at http://www. org/): A Christmas carol (Charles Dickens) & translation “Een Kerstlied in proza” by J. Kuylman; Uncle Tom’s cabin (Harriet Beecher Stowe) & translation “De Negerhut” by C. M. Mensing; Sense and sensibility (Jane Austen) & translation “Gevoel en verstand” by Gonne Van Uildriks; The adventures of Tom Sawyer (Mark Twain) & translation “De lotgevallen van Tom Sawyer” by Johan Braakensiek.
As van der Horst (2008) points out, the Dutch V‑ende progressive never reached the stage of the passive progressive, which appeared in English in the late eighteenth century. Instead, from the sixteenth century onwards other constructions arose in Dutch to express durative aspect, such as liggen, staan, or zitten + ende + second conjugated verb, as in (45), or aan het + infinitive, as in (46), and later also zitten, staan, or liggen (+ te ) + infinitive, as in (47)‒(48): (45) Hier zit een vroutgen en spint.
De Smet 2008: 83) (52) (…) then, soone after, I tooke my Cotch and went to Linton, wher, I aftor salutinge my mother, praied, and so went to supper. (De Smet 2008: 83) Notice that, when used in these temporal meanings, verbal gerunds are typically controlled by the subject (or another element) in the main clause and therefore resemble free adjuncts, as in (52). Importantly, examples such as (52) show that in Present-Day English, the distinction between gerunds and free adjuncts is not clear-cut, as there is no way of determining whether after in (52) is a preposition or a conjunction.