By William G. Davenport and Matthew J. King (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Sulfuric Acid Manufacture. Analysis, Control and Optimization
Excessive O2-in-gas levels, on the other hand, give SO3 in the product gas. This SO3 is inadvertently absorbed during gas scrubbing and cooling- which: (a) decreases acid regeneration efficiency (b) increases the amount of acidic scrubbing/cooling liquid that must be neutralized and evaporated. 54 O2-in-furnace gas concentrations are measured with zirconium oxide sensors (Ametek, 2005; Weiss and Puricelli, 2004). They are controlled by adjusting air input rate. 6 Preparation of Offgas for SO2 Oxidation and H2SO4Making Decomposition furnace offgas is: hot (~1300 K) dusty (~1 g particulate/Nm 3 of gas) concentrated in H20(g) (25+ volume%) too weak in O2 for catalytic SO2 oxidation.
N 2 concentration is 79 volume% at all ratios, not shown. This is because consumption of one kg-mole of 02 produces one kg-mole of SO2. ) Unfortunately, decreasing the input air/input sulfur ratio also decreases the of the gas (Fig. 5), potentially lowering catalytic oxidation efficiency. O 2 / S O 2 ratio An alternative way to increase S O 2 concentration (and decrease furnace exit gas volume) is to feed less N2 to the sulfur burning furnace - by replacing some air with oxygen (Miller and Parekh, 2004).
2. In all three cases the gas is dehydrated by contacting it with strong sulfuric acid. 9. 1). 60 sulfur burning furnace \ . :: iiiii: ;' ' J boiler and I dry 700 K, SO2, 02, N2 gas to catalytic ~ S02+1~02 superheater ried air ~ SO3 oxidationand H2SO4making --350 K strong sulfuric acid ---~-_E~-j,-jxl iv v v T Y i filtered f packedbed'I AIR DEHYDRATION moist air ~ , . _I'~'~" ~'~'1 --3 volume% ="-_-" / H o gl slightly H20-diluted sulfuric acid Fig. 1. Dehydration of sulfur combustion air in a sulfur buming acid plant.