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Coplamos. etc. a. 1. 1. 1. a. = not available. a. 3 Innovation by kind 0/ company and nationality (1950-78)(&) Year 1. Major Product and Design Innovation (numbers) of which percentage by Western Electric (Le. Bell Labs) US Established Electrical Companies(b) Non-US Semiconductor Companies Established US Semiconductor companies(c) New US companies 2. e. Bell Labs) US Established Electrical Companies (b) Non-US Companies Established US Semiconductor Companies(c) New US Companies Materials and equipment producers 3.

Increasing speed 3. Increasing reliability 4. Decreasing costs One must add to these fundamental dimensions other important parameters such as heat immunity, dispersion, energy consumption, Trends in Innovation and its Determinants 39 frequency range, maximum allowable power charge, and noise immunity. 4 - taken from the already mentioned thorough analysis of technology indicators by the Futures Group (Gordon and Munson, 1981) -illustrate the pattern of progress. 66 Technical progress in semiconductors deeply afTected downstream sec tors which utilise them.

These wafers are put in a furnace where so me elements (for example, boron), at gaseous state, are diffused on them. Then, being exposed to oxygen, they develop an oxidated surface. Finally, wafers are coated with a photo-sensitive emulsion ('photoresist'). By means of aligning the wafer to the mask and exposing the latter to intense light, the pattern ofthe circuit is reproduced on the wafer, so that, after baking the wafer and 'etching' it in an acid solution, only the regions of the 26 Technical Change and Industrial Transformation wafer which were not exposed to the light will remain covered by the layers of silicon dioxide.

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