By J. William Costerton
This publication info the generally approved speculation that most of micro organism in almost all ecosystems develop in matrix-enclosed biofilms. the writer, who proposed this biofilm speculation, makes use of direct facts from microscopy and from molecular innovations, featuring cogent purposes for relocating past traditional tradition tools that ruled microbiology in the course of the final century. micro organism develop predominantly in biofilms in all ordinary, engineered, and pathogenic ecosystems, and this ebook presents a superior foundation for the knowledge of bacterial procedures in environmental, commercial, agricultural, dental and scientific microbiology. utilizing a special "ecological" viewpoint, the writer explores the commensal and pathogenic colonization of human organ structures.
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Bottom: when the K 88 EPS of the bacteria is stabilized by reaction with speciﬁc antibodies, the capsules are protected from condensation, and the cells appear in their correct spatial relationships with the colonized tissue 42 1 Direct Observations even cultured bacteria can initiate infection, but none of these antiadhesion vaccines has ever been successful in human or veterinary medicine. Studies of the attachment of cultured bacteria to tissue and inert surfaces have raised false hopes in the control of infectious diseases and wasted billions of dollars in the biomaterials industry, but this damage can be contained if we simply resolve to use wild strains in future experiments.
11 In this conceptual drawing Peg Dirckx captures Paul Stoodley’s concepts of bioﬁlm dynamics, and the mature bioﬁlm formed by the attachment of planktonic cells (left) is capable of moving across the colonized surface in waves (back right) and of detaching matrix-enclosed aggregates that may enter the bulk ﬂuid (top right) or may roll across the surface (back center). The mature bioﬁlm microcolonies may be deformed by shear stress and may also detach planktonic cells (front right) that enter the bulk ﬂuid phase.
In so doing we leave behind all of the bacterial cells that have adhered to the surfaces of the test tube, just like ZoBell observed in his “bottle effect” paper (ZoBell 1943), and we gradually select for mutants that are defective in bioﬁlm formation (Fig. 19). Once this process has been repeated hundreds of times, and the resultant lab strain becomes a favorite because it always yields consistent data, so many surface structures have been lost that the cells might actually behave like the inert spherical ball required by DLVO theory in adhesion experiments.