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By Demetrios Bathrellos

St Maximus the Confessor is among the giants of Christian theology. His doctrine of 2 wills gave the ultimate form to historic Christology and used to be ratified via the 6th Ecumenical Council in advert 681. This examine throws new gentle upon essentially the most fascinating classes of historic and systematic theology. Its concentration is the 7th century, the century that observed the swift growth of Islam, and the Empire's failed try to continue lots of its south-eastern provinces via inventing and selling the heresy of Monothelitism (only one will in Christ) as a bridge among the Byzantine Church and the anti-Chalcedonian church buildings which prevailed in a few of these parts.

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Extra resources for The Byzantine Christ: Person, Nature, and Will in the Christology of Saint Maximus the Confessor (Oxford Early Christian Studies)

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1336D-1337A. Could this be one of the sources that inspired Maximus to introduce and establish the technical terms 'natural will' and 'natural energy'? Given Maximus's acquaintance with Leontian Christology, this possibility cannot be excluded. Furthermore, Leontius relates the energies with the essence while dealing with the humanity of Christ. One wonders why Uthemann, who refers to a passage in this work of Leontius in order to support the view that he may have contributed to the preparation of the ground for the monothelite heresy, has overlooked these astonishingly important passages (Uthemann's references are to 1352D-1353B: see 'Der Neuchalkedonismus als Vorbereitung des Monotheletismus', 385-6).

By the 640s, they were already establishing their own Empire. The above-mentioned historical developments are closely related to the monothelite controversy. Byzantium sought to reintegrate into the official Church regions in which the antiChalcedonians constituted a considerable proportion of the population, such as Armenia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Syria. In fact, the threat that first the Persians, then the Arabs posed to the Empire made this reintegration even more urgent, for the dissenters were not always willing to defend the Empire whose official Church had espoused the abominable doctrines of Leo and Chalcedon—at times, some of them even welcomed the invaders.

E. Goodman, which attack the notion of the one composite hypostasis (a recurrent theme of Leontius of Jerusalem's Nestorian interlocutor too), and insist on the formula 'two natures, two hypostases and one person in Christ' (see A Nestorian Collection of Christological Texts, ii: Introduction, Translation, Indexes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972), xix). The human nature is not swallowed up in the face of the sovereignty of God the Logos and/or for the sake of unity, as happened with Apollinarius and the monophysites; nor is it reduced to a set of attributes of the divinity, as with Severus.

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