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By Robert Stephen Paul Beekes

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In anticipation of what follows it must, however, be admitted that the question remains why precisely Greek and Armenian have vocalized the PIE laryngeal in this position. Here the influence of a substratum cannot be excluded; cf. p. 18 n. 1. But this is something fundamentally different from explaining the prothetic vowel directly by the phonetic laws of a substratum. The matter must be further left out of consideration here. d. Attempts at an Explanation So far, if we except the explanation with the aid of the laryngeal theory, the socalled prothesis has not been adequately explained.

2, pp. ) seems to me entirely incorrect. It is surely evident that in these cases the ε has the function of reduplication, and so is a functional element, which the prothetic vowel is not. On the other hand substratum influence has been envisaged and it has been pointed out that Hittite, Lycian, Lydian, Armenian and Turkish never have an r at the beginning of the word. However, it seems to me of importance that Greek does have f>-, albeit mainly from sr- or ψ-. Cf. v. 2. βέζω and βυκάνη : he is surprised at the absence of a prothetic vowel.

Ndërr, Tose, ëndërrë 'dream': ονειρος, Geg. emën, Tose, emër 'name' 4 : ονομα. , is a separate case that is not on a par with the other cases of prothetic vowels, which seems correct to me; cf. p. 43. Having regard to the d, ândërr will stem from *hsonr (*hzenr, οναρ; cf. p. 46). For emën see p. v. ονομα. I consider it to have been convincingly demonstrated that Albanian has nothing that corresponds to the Greek prothetic vowel. Consequently erë 'darkness' will not correspond to ερεβος either.

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