By Jim Turley
Книга «The crucial advisor to Semiconductors» - это полное руководство по бизнесу и технологии проектирования и производства полупроводников. Достаточно концептуально для дилетантов и нетехнических инвесторов, но достаточно подробно для технических специалистов, Джим Терли объясняет как именно кремниевые чипы проектируются и производятся, освещает ключевые рынки и возможности, и показывает, как вся индустрия работает вместе.
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Copyright © 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. FIG. 2 Schematic diagram showing the probable steps involved in the hydroxide mechanism. A: Diffusion of hydroxide colloidal particles to the substrate, where they adhere (B) and react with S ions (either generated homogeneously in solution or catalyzed by the hydroxide surface). This reaction results in exchange of the hydroxide by sulphide, probably starting at the surface of the colloid and proceeding inward (C). This reaction will occur both at the surface-adsorbed colloids and at those dispersed in the solution.
42) into Eq. 43) This relation is clearly very simplified, being based on a number of approximations, such as the validity of the use of the Hamaker constant at such close distances and the particle and surface being of the same material. Also, the relationship between surface force and van der Waals forces does not hold for many solids, in particular for metals where metallic bonding is important. Nonetheless, if taken as an indication of the forces holding particles to each other and to surfaces, it does give a feel for these forces.
This occurs when the time taken for the interaction (acting at the speed of light) is comparable to the characteristic scale of the electron fluctuations, viz. the plasma frequency. The plasma frequency ranges typically from 10 eV down to 2 eV (closer to the former for many dielectrics and to the latter for metals), which translates into a length scale of between 600 and 100 nm. At this distance scale, the (at this point, very weak) van der Waals forces are termed retarded forces, because of the appreciable time required for the transmitting dipole electromagnetic field to reach the receiving species.