Download The Ethics, Parts 1-5 by Benedict de Spinoza (Translated by R. H. M. Elwes) PDF

By Benedict de Spinoza (Translated by R. H. M. Elwes)

Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata

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External to God it cannot be or be conceived (I. ). Therefore there is nothing positive in ideas which causes them to be called AXIOMS. 15 Ethics PART II: OF THE NATURE AND ORIGIN OF THE MIND. false. D. PROP. XXXIV. Every idea, which in us is absolute or adequate and perfect, is true. When we say that an idea in us is adequate and perfect, we say, in other words (II. xi. ), that the idea is adequate and perfect in God, in so far as he constitutes the essence of our mind; consequently (II. ), we say, that such an idea is true.

Their idea of freedom, therefore, is simply their ignorance of any cause for their actions. As for their saying that human actions depend on the will, this is a mere phrase without any idea to correspond thereto. What the will is, and how it moves the body, they none of them know; those who boast of such knowledge, and feign dwellings and habitations for the soul, are wont to provoke either laughter or disgust. So, again, when we look at the sun, we imagine that it is distant from us about two hundred feet; this error does not lie solely in this fancy, but in the fact that, while we thus imagine, we do not know the sun's true distance or the cause of the fancy.

It is in the nature of reason to perceive things under a certain form of eternity (sub quâdam æternitatis specie). It is in the nature of reason to regard things, not as contingent, but as necessary (II. ). Reason perceives this necessity of things (II. ) truly,that is (I. Ax. ), as it is in itself. But (I. ) this necessity of things is the very necessity of the eternal nature of God; therefore, it is in the nature of reason to regard things under this form of eternity. We may add that the bases of reason are the notions (II.

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