By Philippe Blondel
Sidescan sonar is proving to be the preeminent method for researchers and pros looking wisdom in regards to the constitution and behaviour of the seafloor, yet its info is frequently tricky to interpret end result of the physics of acoustic distant sensing, and to the numerous geological procedures at play. This e-book covers the basics of sidescan sonar, comprises new realizing of marine constructions, and explains the best way to interpret sidescan sonar imagery and bathymetry.
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Additional resources for The Handbook of Sidescan Sonar (Springer Praxis Books Geophysical Sciences)
This instrument covers a much larger portion of the seabed away from the surveying vessel, from a few tens of meters to 60 km or more. This coverage is attained by transmitting one beam on each side (broad in the vertical plane and narrow in the horizontal plane). 5 kHz to 1 MHz), sidescan sonars achieve resolutions of 60 m down to 1 cm. The processing steps are less standardized, depending on the manufacturer, despite the consensus on the types of corrections desirable (see Chapter 4). Whenever possible, these instruments are used in combination.
But a rougher surface will be more likely to have small facets facing toward the sonar, thus increasing the backscatter (and scattering in other directions). Gravel patches will appear acoustically brighter than mud patches, for example. Last but not least, the eect of volume scattering should not be neglected. It will be increased by the type of seabed and the possibility of acoustic penetration at the frequency used: some seabeds will appear smooth at one wavelength, because they are ¯at, and rough at another wavelength, because of buried objects or bioturbation.
Sediments). Sec. 2 Acoustic theory; basics 17 way'' and can be missed if facing ``the wrong way''. This is also why some terrains might appear acoustically brighter, although they are just on a dierent slope. These possible eects should be kept in mind during interpretation (see Chapters 10 and 11). , 5 cm for a 30 kHz frequency) will scatter mostly along the specular direction, and the backscatter will be very low (this explains why abyssal plains are acoustically darker). But a rougher surface will be more likely to have small facets facing toward the sonar, thus increasing the backscatter (and scattering in other directions).