By Paul Cobben
The human self is a loose self that will get form in a society during which it truly is either equivalent to the others (as the criminal one who acknowledges the others as unfastened and equivalent) and specified (as the ethical one who isn't really exchangeable to the others). consequently, the trendy debate on society is ruled through the decision of the relation among correct and morality. In a feedback of Habermas, Honneth, Rawls and others, this paintings argues that this relation needs to be constructed as a scientific elaboration of the mind-body-relation. in line with the Hegelian culture, reputation to begin with matters the popularity of the physique by way of the brain.
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Extra info for The Nature of the Self: Recognition in the Form of Right and Morality (Quellen Und Studien Zur Philosophie)
The law can be ascribed to an original lawgiver or be conceived of as having a divine origin; it can have been transformed into law-instinctual behavior that, without legal order, would also have been performed; it can serve the interest of many people or that of only one individual. To be valid as a legal order it is sufficient that the law is known as law. ”]. p. 377. However, we will see that all stages of the development of consciousness are abstractions of the concrete totality of the polis.
Therefore, the vertical recognition has to do with the domain of morality and (as we will see later on) human rights. The horizontal recognition is situated within the social organism. The social organism is realized by members who observe a legal law. All members are absolute equals insofar as they are moral individuals. Because of this absolute equality, they will express themselves as free and equal citizens of the social organism. Therefore, the horizontal recognition has to do with the domain of right.
There is no way to anticipate the ruler, because the victim does not know what the former wants. Therefore, this form of power execution is not effective to enforce the subjects to coordinate their actions. Because the power has not any general criterion at its disposal, it only gets validity in the here and now, i. , it can only ad hoc enforce an action by immediately threatening with violence. The fear that is evoked by the exercised violence, or by the threatening of violence, is the only ground to obey the ruler.