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By Hall E.H.

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Extra resources for The Number of Free Electrons with a Metal

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Typical lifetimes for observed fluorescence for organic molecules are in the picosecond to nanosecond range. The quantum yield of fluorescence is an important parameter in photophysics. Often a measurement of the quantum yield of fluorescence of a fluorophore will give information regarding its biological environment. The photophysical deactivation pathways can be greatly influenced by the im- 16 Redmond mediate environment. One example is the difference in fluorescence observed between DP in aqueous solution and when bound to proteins such as serum albumin.

D* -» D + hi/ f (17) murine leukemia cells (5 million cells per milliliter) at the bulk concentrations given. The observed reduction in fluorescence yield with increasing DP concentration (panel A) is not accompanied by a decreased fluorescence lifetime, as expected for dynamic quenching. Instead the fluorescence lifetime remains constant, as shown in panel B over the same concentration range. 26 Redmond A + hvt--» A* (18) This mechanism obviously does not require close interaction of energy donor and acceptor molecules.

3) is identical. Thus, measurement of the integrated fluorescence intensities (If) for both unknown (u) and standard (s) allows determination of the <3>f of the unknown. 05) for both unknown and standard. The slopes (Sf) of the plots of It- vs. A are then substituted into Eq. (4) below for the determination of f. An example is Redmond 14 shown in Fig. 124) in the same solvent. (4) This simple expression is also accompanied by a number of experimental considerations that improve the accuracy of the determination.

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