By Kristjan Arnason
This e-book provides a entire, contrastive account of the phonological buildings and features of Icelandic and Faroese. it really is written for Nordic linguists and theoretical phonologists drawn to what the languages display approximately phonological constitution and phonological swap and the relation among morphology, phonology, and phonetics. The ebook is split into 5 elements. within the first Professor Arnason presents the theoretical and ancient context of his research. Icelandic and Faroese originate from the West-Scandinavian or Norse spoken in Norway, Iceland and a part of the Scottish Isles on the finish of the Viking Age. the fashionable spoken languages are slightly intelligible to one another and, regardless of many universal phonological features, convey alterations that elevate questions on their old and structural relation and approximately phonological switch extra ordinarily. Separate components are dedicated to synchronic research of the sounds of the languages, their phonological oppositions, syllabic constitution and phonotactics, lexical morphophonemics, rhythmic constitution, intonation and postlexical version. The ebook attracts at the author's and others' released paintings and offers the result of unique examine in Faroese and Icelandic phonology.
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Extra info for The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese (The Phonology of the World's Languages)
The most plausible phonetic account of this seems to be to assume an epenthesis, so that a high element (I or U) was inserted between the vowel and the following velar or palatal nasal. Another instance of epenthesis of this sort, creating a short diphthong, is to be found in words like skald ‘poet’, which has the modern reﬂex sk ald [skault] with a diphthong. It is perhaps not clear how to interpret the prosody in these cases. But assuming a lengthening before these clusters, creating long vowels, which then diphthongized along with other long vowels, is incompatible with the MI vocalism in forms like lengi [leiɲcɪ] ‘long-ADV’ and lo¨ng [løyŋk] ‘long-FEM’.
Sg. 11 But there is an obvious tension between the diphthongal trend and the shortening trend. In many instances (potential) short diphthongs are realized as monophthongs in the modern languages, particularly in Faroese. This is the case in forms like keypti opti [ɹœhpti] ‘shouted’, and f ult [fYlt] ‘foul-NEUT’ corresponding [ʧehpti] ‘bought’, r opa˚ [rouːpa] ‘to shout’, and f ulur to long diphthongs in keypa [ʧheiːpa] ‘to buy’, r [fuuːlʊɹ] ‘foul-MASC’. Other instances of morphophonemic alternation between atsmaður diphthongs and monophthongs are seen in b atur [pɔɑː(h)tʊɹ] ‘boat’ vs b h [pɔ tsmeavʊɹ] ‘boatsman, shipmate’ and spakur [spea(h)kʊɹ] ‘calm’ vs spakt [spahkt] ‘calm-NEUT’.
But at the same time some changes take place in the old diphthongs: old au being fronted to [øy] and the old front rounded /ey/ being delabialized and merging with old ei. g. Bruce (1970). 22 i the historical and theoretical setting et was originally a rising diphthong [ie], which in MI has the reﬂex [je], as in f e [fjeː], h [c¸eːt]. In addition to this strong tendency for diphthongization, several other developments have caused changes in the quality of Icelandic vowels, sometimes involving mergers.