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By Martin Hengel

Hengel's vintage paintings refers not just to all of Josephus' works, but additionally to each proper Rabbinic tractate, Qumran textual content, modern Latin or Greek writer and biblical, apocryphal or pseudepigraphical and early Christian textual content.

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Extra resources for The Zealots: Investigations into the Jewish Freedom Movement in the Period from Herod I until 70 A.D.

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G . Holscher, op. , 1971-1993, attributed the reports about the period of the procurators to his 'anonymous Jewish author'; see 1974 and above, n. 47. This unknown author was, Holscher believed, essentially responsible for the last three books of the Antiquities. He supported the moderate Jewish point of view, was faithful to the law and was critical of renegades and of the Zealots ahke. According to Holscher, 1992f, he was liberal in his attitude towards Hellenistic culture, the theatre and gladiatoral combats.

B o t h w o r d s w e r e used by ancient authors, together w i t h the related abstract n o u n s XTjaTsia and latrocinium, for the most part w h e n they w e r e discussing the widespread p h e n o m e n o n of disorder caused by robbers. T h e w o r d s w e r e also legal technical terms. Excursus II: The Scourge of Robbers in the Ancient World (a) In the R o m a n Empire' The parts of the Empire that suffered most from robbers were the frontier provinces and territories. These provided favourable hiding-places for robbers because of their geographical situation.

Kadman, The Coins of the Jewish War o/66-7J, Jerusalem 1960. H. Strack, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, 3rd. ed. F. Moore, Judaism, 1, 93ff. THE S E C O N D A R Y S O U R C E S 21 collapsed. Despite this, h o w e v e r , the rabbinic c o n t r i b u t i o n to o u r k n o w l e d g e of the Zealot m o v e m e n t is u n d o u b t e d l y o u r m o s t i m p o r t a n t source of information apart from the w o r k of Josephus himself. *" T h e names of the leaders of this m o v e m e n t are also n o t e d .

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