By L. B. Freund
This ebook offers entire insurance of tension, illness formation and floor evolution in skinny motion pictures. With its balanced assurance of conception, scan and simulation and plenty of homework difficulties, the textual content could be crucial examining in senior undergraduate and graduate classes on skinny motion pictures.
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Additional resources for Thin film materials: stress, defect formation and surface evolution
On a crystal surface, there is some density ½ad of adatoms that is in equilibrium with a straight surface step or ledge bordering a partial monolayer of ¯lm atoms, that is, for which the step neither advances nor recedes. The step is a boundary between two phases in a homogeneous material system. Consequently, the notion of equilibrium vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor density ½ead can be invoked in an analogous way. For ¯lm growth to occur by condensation, the free energy per atom of the twodimensional gas must exceed the free energy of a fully entrained surface atom by the amount Eph = kTs ln(½ad =½ead ).
3 Modes of film growth by vapor deposition 29 S Fig. 11. A schematic diagram showing the components of surface stress fij acting on an in¯nitesimal element of a material surface. Surface stress is interpreted as a second rank tensor, and the components are referred to a local rectangular coordinate system in a plane tangent to the surface at the point of interest. Then, the state of surface stress in the surface at the point of tangency can be expressed in terms of the components of membrane force acting on the boundary of an in¯nitesimal surface element with edges aligned with the coordinate directions.
6) Development of the ideas underlying the concept of a surface stress in solids was pioneered by Shuttleworth (1950), Herring (1951) and Cahn (1980). 11. Consider the plane that is tangent to the smooth surface at the point of interest. A rectangular x1 x2 ¡coordinate system is introduced in the tangent plane. 3 Modes of film growth by vapor deposition 29 S Fig. 11. A schematic diagram showing the components of surface stress fij acting on an in¯nitesimal element of a material surface. Surface stress is interpreted as a second rank tensor, and the components are referred to a local rectangular coordinate system in a plane tangent to the surface at the point of interest.