Download To the digital age: research labs, start-up companies, and by Ross Knox Bassettm PDF

By Ross Knox Bassettm

The metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor is the elemental part of electronic electronics. The thousands and thousands of transistors in a regular home—in own pcs, autos, home equipment, and toys—are just about all derive from MOS transistors. To the electronic Age examines for the 1st time the historical past of this awesome gadget, which overthrew the formerly dominant bipolar transistor and made electronic electronics ubiquitous. Combining technological with company heritage, To the electronic Age examines the breakthroughs of person innovators in addition to the examine and improvement strength (and difficulties) of huge businesses resembling IBM, Intel, and Fairchild.Bassett discusses how the MOS transistor was once invented yet spurned at Bell Labs, after which how, within the early Sixties, spurred on by means of the probabilities of built-in circuits, RCA, Fairchild, and IBM all introduced monstrous MOS R & D courses. the improvement of the MOS transistor concerned an industry-wide attempt, and Bassett emphasizes how communique between researchers from various organisations performed a severe function in advancing the recent know-how. Bassett sheds colossal new mild at the improvement of the built-in circuit, Moore's legislation, the luck of Silicon Valley start-ups in comparison to vertically built-in East Coast organisations, the improvement of the microprocessor, and IBM's multi-billion-dollar losses within the early Nineties. To the electronic Age deals a charming account of the complex R & D technique in the back of a technological gadget that remodeled sleek society.

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Extra info for To the digital age: research labs, start-up companies, and the rise of MOS technology

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The extra layer gave an additional degree of design freedom so that several characteristics could be optimized simultaneously in a way that had not been possible previously. 32 Throughout the 1950s Bell Labs and a number of other research labs performed work in epitaxy, or vapor growth. In this process a thin film of singlecrystal semiconductor is grown on an existing semiconductor. The advantages this process offered were very close control of the thickness of the semiconductor layer and close control of the doping of the grown layer.

RCA’s transistor symposium, claimed C. B. 54 By the mid- to late 1950s RCA’s sources of research funding were in jeopardy. 35 Competitors successfully sued RCA, receiving free access to RCA’s radio and television patents, which effectively ended RCA Laboratories’ independent source of funds. 55 To partially make up for this loss, RCA Laboratories turned to the military. RCA had been heavily involved in military research during World War II, and this work had paid dividends in its television work, but prior to the mid-1950s RCA had an ambivalent attitude towards government research.

11 The diffusion process, one of the key breakthroughs in junction transistor technology, followed Morton’s model of analysis leading to synthesis and work moving from research to development. The junction transistor design theory had shown that as the base of the transistor was made narrower, the transistor would operate at higher frequencies. In 1953 Shockley and other members of his research organization proposed a new method of fabricating transistors that would produce narrower base widths.

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