By L. Reimer, H. Kohl
Transmission Electron Microscopy offers the idea of snapshot and distinction formation, and the analytical modes in transmission electron microscopy. the rules of particle and wave optics of electrons are defined. Electron-specimen interactions are mentioned for comparing the speculation of scattering and section distinction. additionally mentioned are the kinematical and dynamical theories of electron diffraction and their purposes for crystal-structure research and imaging of lattices and their defects. X-ray micronanalysis and electron energy-loss spectroscopy are handled as analytical tools. Specimen harm and illness via electron irradiation limits the answer for organic and a few inorganic specimens. This 5th version comprises dialogue of modern development, particularly within the sector of aberration corrector, and effort filtering; furthermore the recent issues of the fourth version were up-to-date back.
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Extra resources for Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, 5th ed. (Springer Series in Optical Sciences 36)
48 3 Wave Optics of Electrons of π and destructive interference if the phase is an odd integral multiple of π. In the presence of an electrostatic and a magnetic ﬁeld, the phase diﬀerence between QP1 P and QP2 P becomes ϕ2 − ϕ1 = 2π P2 Q = 2π h k · ds + P k · ds − P2 (mv − eA) · ds. 4) for k has been used. Stokes’ law can be applied to the integral involving A, and the result may be expressed in terms of the magnetic ﬂux Φm enclosed within the loop of area S: 2πe 2π mv · ds − (∇ × A) · dS ϕ 2 − ϕ1 = h h S = 2π h mv · ds − 2πe Φm .
39) and solving for C1 yields C1 = y0 sin φ0 cos(ωφ0 ) − C2 . 39), giving y(φ) = sin(ωφ) sin φ0 cos(ωφ0 ) C2 y0 + cos(ωφ) − sin(ωφ) . 43) The coeﬃcient C2 can be determined from the direction (slope) of the ray at the point P0 , and diﬀerent values of C2 will correspond to diﬀerent directions. 44) independent of C2 (M : magniﬁcation). 46) φ1n = φ0 − n , n = 1, 2, . . ω This means that more than one image point √ can occur in strong lenses. However, n = 2 will not be possible until ω = 1 + k 2 ≥ 2 or k 2 ≥ 3.
26) represents the change of angular momentum L caused by the torque ˙ = M ). 24), we obtain m¨ r = −eBz rϕ˙ + mrϕ˙ 2 , 2 d r ∂Bz d (mr2 ϕ) = ˙ = eBz rr˙ + e z˙ dt 2 ∂z dt m¨ z = eBr rϕ. 29) results in e mr2 ϕ˙ = r2 Bz + C. 31) 2 The constant of integration C becomes zero for meridional rays, and only a trajectory r(z) need be considered in a meridional plane rotating at the angular velocity e Bz . 32) ωL = ϕ˙ = 2m This is known as the Larmor frequency, which is half the cyclotron frequency of an electron on a circular trajectory.