By Barbara Sonnenhauser, Patrizia Noel Aziz Hanna
Vocatives have hardly been comprehensively mentioned of their a variety of features. With 12 contributions overlaying the range of vocative marking, constructions, and capabilities, in addition to the relevance of vocatives for theoretical and methodological reasoning, this quantity contributes to final an important hole in linguistic study. It presents an in depth photo of the vocative as a constitution among 'system' and 'performance'.
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Additional info for Vocative!: Addressing Between System and Performance
Da-art’qi burt-s! ‘PREV-kick-2S the ball-DAT’. This example shows that an imperative clause does not require an overt subject. The subject is understood to be the addressee or the 2nd person, which can be confirmed when we insert the vocative: bi’o (VOC), (šen) daart’qi burts! ’. Moreover, the vocative marks the 2nd person only. e. it can only be substituted with you – the 2nd person pronoun. So both forms – the vocative case as well as the imperative mood – are substitutable by the 2nd person.
From zurab), datuna! (from david), tamuna! (from tamar); these forms also occur in other cases. There is a specific form of addressing a person in the Mokhevian dialect – the first name with the suffix -is-i (maqvala-is-i, onise-is-i). This suffix consists of the genitive case marker -is + the nominative suffix -i. Some linguists (Apridonidze 1991) regard this -i as an emphatic vowel. According to Apridonidze (1991: 143) maqvalaisi < maqvalais gaxarebam ‘Maqvala’s joy (ERG)’ is “a case of the substantivization of the genitive 28 Lia Abuladze and Andreas Ludden modifier with the loss of the modified noun”.
Over a large area in Northern Italy. It was eventually superseded by Latin around the beginning of the Common Era. Prior to its disappearance, it had extensive and long-standing contacts in particular with the Indo-European languages Greek, Umbrian, Latin, both belonging to the Italic sub-branch of Indo-European, and Gaulish. Through these contacts, a very large number of personal names were borrowed into Etruscan. g. Gr. *4&9;=? (Díphilos) ( Etr. <">=? (Lýkandros) ( licantre (de Simone 1970: 94–95).