By Martti Pârssinen, Antti Korpisaari (ed.)
Surveying cultural and environmental heritage in a large geographical context, this publication examines a number of the historical cultures of Bolivian, Brazilian and Peruvian Amazonia. It demonstrates that pre-Colonial western Amazonia supported huge settlements either within the varzea and terra firme environments. New unearths in truth point out the life of complicated societies even within the interfluvial tropical zones within the first centuries of the second one millenium A.D. The publication additionally contributes to our knowing of the fortifications and indigenous expansionist routine from Amazonia towards the Andes (the Tupi-Guarani), and from the Andes towards Amazonia (the Incas). the traditional Andean peoples have been it appears attracted to the normal assets of Amazonian societies to a miles larger quantity that in the past suggestion.
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Additional info for Western Amazonia - Amazonia Occidental. Multidisciplinary Studies on Ancient Expansionistic Movements, Fortifications and Sedentary Life
It is interesting that Sarmiento offers even more detailed accounts of these conquests by combining the khipu texts with oral information from Cuzco. First of all, he explains that Topa Inca divided his army into three parts before the actual conquest took place. One was led by himself and the other two by Otorongo Achachi and Chaleo Yupanqui (the latter representing the Solar Cult). They met in Opatari, from where they continued their war expedition. Sarmiento (1572; 1943:224-225) continues as follows: Conquistó Topa Inga y sus capitanes, desta vez, cuatro grandes naciones.
If a local chieftain gave in without a fight he had to take an oath of allegiance to the Inca and the Sun God and hand over a number of his subjects to the Inca state and the Inca army to be used as labourers. In return he was allowed to remain the local ruler of his chiefdom without any substantial administrative changes (Murra 1975; 1978; 1985; 2002; Parssinen 2001). He was also granted other privileges, such as the right to have several wives. Moreover, the relationship was bound by kinship, as the Inca ruler, as a token of the alliance, often gave one of his sisters or daughters in marriage to a prominent local chieftain or took the chieftain’s sister or daughter as his concubine (Espinoza Soriano 1967:276; 1976:247-298; Rostworowski 1961:54; Hidalgo 1985:99; Parssinen 1992:152-157).
ISKANW AYA 15. INICUA 16. CARANAVI 17. SAPECHO 18. CHIMAY 19. SAMAIPATA Fig. 28. The Madre de Dios and Beni river routes toward Paitite (drawn by R. Kesseli). The Manupampas lived somewhat east of the Manu River (Rowe 1985:212). They are also mentioned by Cabello (1586; 1951:335) and Murua (1616; 1987:87), and may be identified by their custom of colouring their mouth and teeth black. According to Sarmiento, this custom was also associated with the Yanasimies, who lived, according to Alvarez Maldonado (1570a; 1906:62), near the headwaters of the Guariguaga River (probably the same river as the De Las Piedras mentioned earlier).