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By Brian Garrett

Why is there whatever instead of not anything? Does God exist? Who am I? Metaphysics is worried with ourselves and truth, and the main basic questions relating to life. This clear and available creation covers the crucial subject matters in Metaphysics in a concise yet finished means. Brian Garrett discusses the the most important techniques in a hugely readable demeanour, easing the reader in with a glance at some vital philosophical problems. He addresses key parts of metaphysics: life causation God time universals own id fact what's this factor known as Metaphysics? comprises many useful student-friendly positive aspects. every one bankruptcy concludes with an invaluable precis of the most rules mentioned, a word list of significant phrases, examine questions, annotated extra interpreting, and a consultant to net assets. Text-boxes offer bite-sized summaries of key innovations and significant philosophers, and transparent and engaging examples are used all through.

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Rather than think of meaning as reference, maybe we do better to think of the meaning of a word as a function of its uses within some linguistic community. On such a view, the referent of a word, if it has one, is irrelevant to its meaning. However, there is another, metaphysical, argument for universals. It runs as follows: Consider two exactly similar red spheres. They have the same colour (amongst other similarities). , numerically identical to, the colour in the other. What is present in one is also present in the other.

They appear to be in the business of referring, but that is not what they are doing at all. The grammatical structure of sentences containing such terms differs from their true logical structure. The point of Russell’s theory of descriptions is to exhibit their logical structure. , phrases of the form ‘the so-and-so’) it is clear that grammatical structure and logical structure come apart. 3 children. This is grammatically subject-predicate (of the form ‘Fa’, where ‘a’ is the subject term and ‘F’ the predicate).

Russell wrote extensively in almost every branch of philosophy, most significantly in logic, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of language and mind, and epistemology, but also in social and political philosophy. The latter writings were intended for a general audience. A great prose stylist, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950. Two of his books – The Problems of Philosophy (1912) and A History of Western Philosophy (1945) – were philosophical bestsellers. Among his most important and influential philosophical contributions were the theory of descriptions and Russell’s paradox (which showed that the intuitive ‘axiom of comprehension’ – to each property there corresponds a set of exactly the objects with that property – leads to paradox).

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